Kamis, 14 Maret 2013


  An adjective is a word used to describe a noun.

Types of Adjectives

Following are the kinds of adjectives which are commonly used:
  1. Adjectives of Quality:
    • Adjectives of Quality answer the question ‘Of what kind’
    • Examples : Large, Small, Intelligent, Beautiful

  2. Adjectives of Quantity:
    • Adjectives of Quantity answer the question ‘How much’
    • Examples : Some, Little, Any, Enough

  3. Adjectives of Number:
    • Adjectives of Number answer the question ‘How many’
    • Examples : Two, Seven, Second, Third

  4. Demonstrative Adjectives:
    • Demonstrative Adjectives answer the question ‘Which’
    • Examples : This, That, These, Those

  5. Interrogative Adjectives:
    • Interrogative Adjectives are used to ask questions about a noun.
    • Examples : What, Which, Whose

List of Adjectives, Adjective Examples

Abundant Elderly Nasty
Accurate Elegant Naughty
Addicted Embarrassed Nervous
Adorable Empty New
Adventurous Encouraging Noisy
Afraid Enthusiastic Nutritious
Aggressive Excellent Obedient
Alcoholic Exciting Obese
Alert Expensive Obnoxious
Aloof Fabulous Old
Ambitious Fair Overconfident
Ancient Faithful Peaceful
Angry Famous Pink
Animated Fancy Polite
Annoying Fantastic Poor
Anxious Fast Powerful
Arrogant Fearful Precious
Ashamed Fearless Pretty
Attractive Fertile Proud
Auspicious Filthy Quick
Awesome Foolish Quiet
Awful Forgetful Rapid
Bad Friendly Rare
Bashful Funny Red
Beautiful Gentle Remarkable
Belligerent Glamorous Responsible
Beneficial Glorious Rich
Best Gorgeous Romantic
Big Graceful Royal
Bitter Grateful Rude
Bizarre Great Scintillating
Black Greedy Secretive
Blue Green Selfish
Boring Handsome Serious
Brainy Happy Sharp
Bright Harsh Shiny
Broad Healthy Shocking
Broken Heavy Short
Busy Helpful Shy
Calm Hilarious Silly
Capable Historical Sincere
Careful Horrible Skinny
Careless Hot Slim
Caring Huge Slow
Cautious Humorous Small
Charming Hungry Soft
Cheap Ignorant Spicy
Cheerful Illegal Spiritual
Chubby Imaginary Splendid
Clean Impolite Strong
Clever Important Successful
Clumsy Impossible Sweet
Cold Innocent Talented
Colorful Intelligent Tall
Comfortable Interesting Tasty
Concerned Jealous Tense
Confused Jolly Terrible
Crowded Juicy Terrific
Cruel Juvenile Thick
Curious Kind Thin
Curly Large Tiny
Cute Legal Ugly
Damaged Light Unique
Dangerous Literate Untidy
Dark Little Upset
Deep Lively Victorious
Defective Lonely Violent
Delicate Loud Vulgar
Delicious Lovely Warm
Depressed Lucky Weak
Determined Macho Wealthy
Different Magical Wide
Dirty Magnificent Wise
Disgusting Massive Witty
Dry Mature Wonderful
Dusty Mean Worried
Early Messy Young
Educated Modern Youthful
Efficient Narrow Zealous


  An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb.

Types of Adverbs

There are seven classes of commonly used adverbs:
  1. Adverbs of Time: These adverbs are used to answer the question ‘when’.
    Examples : Now, Yesterday, Today, Once

  2. Adverbs of Frequency: These adverbs are used to answer the question ‘how often’.
    Examples : Seldom, Rarely, Often, Frequently

  3. Adverbs of Place: These adverbs are used to answer the question ‘where’.
    Examples : Out, In, Forward, Everywhere

  4. Adverbs of Manner: These adverbs are used to answer the question ‘how’.
    Examples : Honestly, Bravely, Happily

  5. Adverbs of Degree:These adverbs are used to answer the question ‘how much’ or ‘to what extent’.
    Examples : Fully, Partly, Altogether, Almost

  6. Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation: These adverbs are used to confirm or deny.
    Examples : Certainly, Surely, Absolutely

  7. Adverbs of Reason: These adverbs are used to give the reason.                              
    Examples : Therefore, Hence

List of Adverbs, Adverb Examples

Accidentally Happily Really
Always Highly Regularly
Angrily Honestly Reluctantly
Arrogantly Hopelessly Repeatedly
Badly Immediately Rudely
Beautifully Innocently Sadly
Bitterly Instantly Safely
Blindly Interestingly Seldom
Boldly Jealously Selfishly
Bravely Joyfully Seriously
Briefly Kindly Silently
Busily Lazily Slowly
Carefully Less Softly
Certainly Loudly Sometimes
Clearly Lovingly Soon
Courageously Loyally Strictly
Cruelly Madly Suddenly
Curiously More Surprisingly
Daily Mysteriously Sweetly
Delightfully Naturally Terribly
Easily Nearly Thankfully
Enthusiastically Nervously Thoughtfully
Eventually Never Tomorrow
Exactly Obediently Unexpectedly
Excitedly Officially Unfortunately
Extremely Often Urgently
Fairly Openly Usually
Faithfully Painfully Valiantly
Fast Patiently Very
Foolishly Politely Violently
Fortunately Poorly Well
Frankly Positively Wisely
Generally Properly Yearly
Generously Quickly Yesterday
Gently Quietly  
Gracefully Rarely       


  The concept of time can be split into:

  1. The Present - What you are currently doing.   
I eat, I am eating                                  
  1. The Past - What you did some time back.  
I ate, I was eating
  1. The Future - What you will do later.  
I will eat, I will be eating                                             
In the English language, tenses play an important role in sentence formation.
The tense of a verb shows the time of an event or action.
 There are four types of tenses. Simple, Perfect, Continuous and Present Perfect Continuous and each of these has a present, past and future form. 

In Simple Present, the action is simply mentioned and there is nothing being said about its completeness.
I eat.
I sleep.
I play.
In Present Continuous, the action is on-going/ still going on and hence continuous.
I am eating.
I am sleeping.
I am playing.
In Present Perfect, the action is complete or has ended and hence termed Perfect.
I have eaten.
I have slept.
I have played.
In Present Perfect Continuous, the action has been taking place for some time and is still ongoing.
I have been eating.
I have been sleeping.
I have been playing.

In Simple Past, the action is simply mentioned and understood to have taken place in the past.
I ate.
I slept.
I played.
In Past Continuous, the action was ongoing till a certain time in the past.
I was eating.
I was sleeping.
I was playing.
Past Perfect is used to express something that happened before another action in the past.
I had eaten.
I had slept.
I had played.
Past Perfect Continuous is used to express something that started in the past and continued until another time in the past.
I had been eating.
I had been sleeping.
I had been playing.

Simple Future is used when we plan or make a decision to do something. Nothing is said about the time in the future.
I will eat.
I will sleep.
I will play.
The future continuous tense is used to express action at a particular moment in the future. However, the action will not have finished at the moment.
I will be eating at 9 a.m.
I will be sleeping when you arrive.
I will be playing at 5 p.m.

Future Perfect expresses action that will occur in the future before another action in the future.
I will have eaten before 10 a.m.
I will have slept before you arrive.
I will have played before 6 p.m.
Future Perfect Continuous is used to talk about an on-going action before some point in the future.
I will have been sleeping for two hours when you arrive.
I will have been playing for an hour when it is 5 p.m.

can or could


We use the modal can to make general statements about what is possible:
       It can be very cold in winter. (= It is sometimes very cold in winter)
       You can easily lose your way in the dark. (= People often lose their way in the dark) 

We use could as the past tense of can:
       It could be very cold in winter. (=Sometimes it was very cold in winter.)
       You could lose your way in the dark. (=People often lost their way in the dark)

We use could to show that something is possible in the future, but not certain:

If we don’t hurry we could be late. (=Perhaps/Maybe we will be late)

We use could have to show that something is/was possible now or at some time in the past:
       It’s ten o’clock. They could have arrived now.
       They could have arrived hours ago.


We use the negative can’t or cannot to show that something is impossible:
       That can’t be true.
       You cannot be serious.

We use couldn’t/could not to talk about the past:
       We knew it could not be true.
       He was obviously joking. He could not be serious.


We use can to talk about someone’s skill or general abilities:
       She can speak several languages.
       He can swim like a fish.
       They can’t dance very well.

We use can to talk about the ability to do something at a given time in the present or future:
       You can make a lot of money if you are lucky.
       Help. I can’t breathe.
       They can run but they can’t hide.

We use could to talk about past time:
       She could speak several languages.
       They couldn’t dance very well.


We use can to ask for permission to do something:
       Can I ask a question, please?
       Can we go home now?

could is more formal and polite than can:
       Could I ask a question please?
       Could we go home now?

We use can to give permission:
       You can go home now if you like.
       You can borrow my pen if you like.

We use can to say that someone has permission to do something:
       We can go out whenever we want.
       Students can travel free.

Instructions and requests:

We use could you and as a polite way of telling or asking someone to do something:
       Could you take a message please?
       Could I have my bill please?

can is less polite:
       Can you take a message please?

Offers and invitations:

We use can I … to make offers:
       Can I help you?
       Can I do that for you?

We sometimes say I can ... or I could ... to make an offer:
       I can do that for you if you like.
       I can give you a lift to the station.

adverbs of manner

Adverbs of manner are usually formed from adjectives by adding –ly:
       bad > badly; quiet > quietly; recent > recently; sudden > suddenly

but there are sometimes changes in spelling:
       easy > easily; gentle > gently

If an adjective ends in –ly we use the phrase in a …. way to express manner:
       Silly > He behaved in a silly way.
       Friendly > She spoke in a friendly way.

A few adverbs of manner have the same form as the adjective:
       They all worked hard.
       She usually arrives late.
        I hate driving fast.

Note: hardly and lately have different meanings:
       He could hardly walk = It was difficult for him to walk.
       I haven’t seen John lately = I haven’t seen John recently.

We often use phrases with like as adverbials of manner:
       She slept like a baby.
       He ran like a rabbit.

Adverbs of manner and link verbs

We very often use adverbials with like after link verbs:
       Her hands felt like ice.
       It smells like fresh bread.

But we do not use other adverbials of manner after link verbs. We use adjectives instead:
       They looked happily happy.
       That bread smells deliciously delicious.

active and passive voice

Transitive verbs have both active and passive forms:
active passive
The hunter killed the lion. >> The lion was killed by the hunter.
Someone has cleaned the windows >> The windows have been cleaned

The passive forms are made up of the verb be with a past participle:
be past participle
English is spoken all over the world
The windows have been cleaned
Lunch was being served
The work will be finished soon
They might have been invited to the party

We sometimes use the verb get to form the passive:
       Be careful with the glass. It might get broken.
       Peter got hurt in a crash.

If we want to show the person or thing doing the action we use by:
       She was attacked by a dangerous dog.
       The money was stolen by her husband.

We can use the indirect object as the subject of a passive verb:
active passive
I gave him a book for his birthday >> He was given a book for his birthday.
Someone sent her a cheque for a thousand euros >> She was sent a cheque for a thousand euros.

We can use phrasal verbs in the passive:
active passive
They called off the meeting. >> The meeting was called off.
His grandmother looked after him. >> He was looked after by his grandmother.
They will send him away to school. >> He will be sent away to school.

Some verbs very frequently used in the passive are followed by the to-infinitive:
be supposed to be expected to be asked to
be scheduled to be allowed to be told to

John has been asked to make a speech at the meeting.
You are supposed to wear a uniform.
The meeting is scheduled to start at seven.